FI2 and spad concentration 2016; Quercus bicolor


The rationale of the this experiment is to see if there is a change of photosynthetic efficiency in the given trees from year to year. The location of all 3 trees are north of north kedzie and the genus of all the trees were Quercus Bicolor. The codes for the trees were: 1. 2005035108 2. 2008031602 3. 20050351*07 Research Question: Are the photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll concentrations from trees last the same this year? Our hypothesis of this experiment was that the trees were not going to change statistically from the year prior. Our protocol was to go in pairs and randomly select 10 leaves in 4 different quadrants of 3 separate trees and weekly have a total of 120 measurements.

Introduction Michigan happens to be a state familiar with all 4 seasons. Although people native to Michigan’s weather have managed to find tangible ways to adjust, one may be curious to investigate the impacts of all 4 seasons on nature and wildlife and comparing it to previous years. Specifically, what is the impact of all 4 seasons on the Quercus bicolor, a common tree on the campus of Michigan State University. The Quercus bicolor, or the Swamp Oak, is a rapid growing beech tree. Here, on the campus of Michigan State University, three of the species were selected in the Fall of 2015 to be used in a research project measuring four different aspects which included: Phi2, LEF, SPAD, and NPQt. The lab team questioned whether or not the photosynthetic efficiency of these trees, depicted through the previously mentioned variables, would have a statistically significant change from year to year.
A physical variable that all of these measurement share is light intensity(PAR) which is the portion of light that is usable by plants to perform photosynthesis. Phi2 measures how much incoming light is being absorbed by the plant to perform work, it is also contains an inverse relationship to light intensity(PAR); typical values range from 0(no photosynthetic activity) - 0.85(very healthy plant). LEF is the measurement of the flow of electrons from the reaction center of photosynthesis to convert energy into ATP and NADPH; unlike Phi2, LEF contains a direct relationship with light intensity(PAR); values of LEF range from 0 to 500 µM electrons/m2 per second. SPAD is simply the chlorophyll content in a specific leaf; typical values for SPAD range from 0(no chlorophyll) - 75(High Chlorophyll). The last measurement that was executed was NPQt which is the measurement of how much light intensity(PAR) is dissipated by heat. According to Gitelson, A et al. (2003), there is a direct relationship between the light reflectance and chlorophyll content. Also there being a technique of chlorophyll estimation in leaves with a wide range of different pigments. In the Fall of 2016 the same species were selected to compare the results from the previous to assess which biological conditions contribute to a change in the chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic efficiency, assuming that there is any significant change at all. Taking an agricultural approach the eminence of this research could assist with the placement of future gardens. According to Uddling, J. et al. (2007), present chlorophyll concentration and Spad readings will help determining future readings. The research hypothesis stated that there would be no statistical difference between the chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic efficiency between the Quercus bicolor in fall 2016 and the previous year. The expected outcome would determine that a year has no significant impact on chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic efficiency of the Quercus bicolor. However, if one was to observe a difference in the observed variables, there are numerous factors that would influence the observed variables: a warmer fall, global warming, etc. A way this research will be advancing the research being done on this topic would be how the future of trees will be affected by specific factors


Leaf Photosynthesis - MultispeQ Beta ONLY

Measures photosynthesis-related parameters in <15 seconds, including: Phi2, PhiNPQ, PhiNO, NPQt, qL, LEF, and SPAD. In addition, measures PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), ambient temperature and relative humidity.

Works with the MultispeQ Beta device only


  1. Quercus Bicolor tree code was? (Multiple Choice)
  2. which quadrant sampled? (Multiple Choice)
  3. randomly selected leaf counted in the quadrant- # count? (Multiple Choice)



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