We are evaluating the adaptability, yield, and yield components of introduced hybrid varieties of sunflower in different agro-ecological zones across Malawi. In this study 4 introduced varieties of sunflower were evaluated: Tutti, SY 4045, PAN 7049, and PAN 7351


Chlorophyll content (SPAD) I

REQUIREMENTS: Firmware v0.38 or lower (used for older devices which do not have a SPAD calibration, generally device ID 87 and lower).Measures transmission at 940nm and 650nm in order to determine the 'greenness' of a leaf, an indicator of chlorophyll content and nitrogen content. The 940 is used to account for leaf thickness.

The One Protocol (Phi2, PSI, NPQ) II

The One Protocol to rule them all! Phi2, PSI, NPQt, combined!

Changes from previous The One protocol: - no longer outputs signal from the far red period, which simplifies the signal output for the user - changed distance between measuring pulses from 10,000 to 2,000 which improves measurement resolution - has an initial stabilization peri...


  1. station (Multiple Choice)
  2. Block (Multiple Choice)
  3. Variety (Multiple Choice)
  4. Weeks after plant (Short Answer)
  5. Leaf location (Multiple Choice)


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