PhiII of Ginkgo and Q.Imbrincaria-Fall 2016


  1. Question: How does the photosynthetic efficiency of the Ginkgo species compare to the photosynthetic efficiency of the species Q. Imbrincaria?

  2. We are choosing 3 trees of the Ginkgo species and 3 trees of the Q. Imbrincaria species. We are going to collect a total of 120 samples(20 samples) each time we go out to take samples of the trees for the next five weeks. Samples are going to be taken from tree leaves from the the lower first half of the trees. These are the measurements we are taking when using the multispeQ PhiII: 0.36 SPAD:24.6 LEF: 6.4 NPTQt: .44 Light intensity: 19.6 PAR Relative humidity: 25% temp: 24.6 degrees.

  3. The only key piece of information that we need to answer our question is the species of organisms we are measuring. (In our case it is Ginkgo and Q. Imbrincaria)

  4. My team and I are going to work in pairs. Each pairs are going to take a 120 samples each week for a total of two hours. The only restriction is that we cannot take measurements on wet leaves.

  5. The total sample that we are going to take each week is 120 samples per group. 20 samples are going to be taken from each tree tested.

  6. We believe that since the Q.Imbrincaria species is a fruit bearing tree it would have a higher photosynthetic efficiency than the Ginkgo species.

  7. Methods that we would be using is random sampling and using the multispeq. We would be taking measurements from 3 gingko and 3 Q. Imbrincaria trees. We would be taking leaves from the lower half of the tree. We are to seperate the leaves into four equal quadrants and randomly sample them. The multispeq that my group was using was #123. The multispec is going to be connected to a tablet that records the photosynthetic activity measurements. We are going to take take 20 samples (five samples from each direction north, south, east, and west of each individual tree) from each tree. That gives us a total of 120 samples each week. There will be two teams taking measurements each week. That gives us a total of 240 measurements each week.

  8. We would analyzing the data by running t-test and anovas. We would compare phiII and NQPT over light intensity.

We are comparing the photosynthetic activity between the Quercus imbricaria species and the Gingko species. Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy that is converted into chemical energy. In this experiment, the MultispeQ tool was used to measure PhiII, LEF, NPTQt, light intensity, and PAR Relative humidity. The research performed could be extremely beneficial in terms of the ever-growing concern in our society that is over climate change and global warming.

The hypothesis stated was that Quercus imbricaria, a fruit bearing tree would have a higher photosynthetic activity than Gingko. We want to know if fruit bearing trees would be more photosynthetically efficient because fruits contain high amounts of glucose, which is a product of photosynthesis. We believe that our research outcome will contribute to the subject being studied because we may be able to say that photosynthetic efficiency is different from species to species. Our research can advance the research being done on a similar topic by motivating future researchers to study the different photosynthetic efficiency of more tree species other than Quercus imbricaria and Gingko.

In this experiment, 6 biological replicates were measured in total; 3 biological replicates for each Quercus imbricaria and Ginkgo tree species. For each biological replicate, 20 technical replicates were measured and recorded. The tree canopy was divided into 4 quadrants and 5 leaves were taken from each quadrant. This gave a total of 20 technical replicates (five samples from each direction northwest, northeast, southwest, southeast) from each tree. 120 samples were taken by each team per week and two teams took measurements. The total number of samples taken were 1400. The Quercus imbricaria and the Gingko species are located near Kedzie hall at Michigan State University Campus.

Random Sampling Method:Divide the tree into 4 quadrants and randomly pick 5 leaves per quadrant to measure.


Leaf Photosynthesis - MultispeQ Beta ONLY

Measures photosynthesis-related parameters in <15 seconds, including: Phi2, PhiNPQ, PhiNO, NPQt, qL, LEF, and SPAD. In addition, measures PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), ambient temperature and relative humidity.

Works with the MultispeQ Beta device only


  1. What tree code is used? (Multiple Choice)
  2. Which quadrant is sampled? (Multiple Choice)
  3. Randomly select a leaf counted in the quadrant--#count? (Multiple Choice)
  4. Which species of tree are we using? (Multiple Choice)




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